Monday, May 11, 2009

Non-print equipment and services: Media formats

Nonprint Care Resources http://web.archive.org/web/20070828053045/http://www.tcpl.lib.in.us/tech/nonprint.htm A listing of Internet links

Audio cassettes
Advantages
  • enclosed in individual protective plastic housing
  • require little storage space
  • easy to use (no threading)
  • may be erased and reused
  • can prevent accidental erasing (breakout tabs)
  • easy to duplicate

    Disadvantages:

  • can easily be erased
  • difficult to select a particular section
  • difficult to edit (if splicing one side, splices the other too)
  • lower quality fidelity than open reel tapes
  • longer C-90, C-120 tapes more likely to jam (thinner tape)
  • broken tapes not easy to repair

    Care:
  • avoid touching tape with fingers
  • if cold do not play, let come to room temp.

    Storage:
  • store in dust proof container
  • store on edges
  • store at room temp. and 50 % relative humidity
o Recording tip:
  • before recording, fast forward tape to end then rewind it, this ensures the tape is evenly wound in the cassette (do this on first use, or if not regularly used, once a year)
  • tapes are magnetic; if placed near magnets they can be erased or damaged
Compact discs
Digital recordings stored on one side of disc. Signals read by laser beam.
o Advantages:
  • very durable
  • better sound quality than audio cassettes
  • compact and portable, require little storage space
  • random search capability
  • program order of tracks
o Disadvantages:
  • currently more expensive than audio cassettes
o Care:
  • handle discs by their edges
  • to clean use soft cloth and always wipe from centre to edge, NEVER wipe in a circular motion
o Storage:
  • store in jewel case or other appropriate container (especially on shelves)
  • store on edge
  • store at room temp
Six ways to ruin a CD
Permanence, care, and handling of CDs http://web.archive.org/web/20011218160437/www.kodak.com/global/en/professional/products/storage/pcd/techInfo/permanence2.shtml

The following ways can ruin a CD:
• Write on with ball point or pencil
• Expose to sun
• Peel off a label
• Apply solvents
• Expose to dust/dirt
• Handle surfaces

Filmstrips
A strip of 35mm film with frames arranged in sequence. Sprocket holes on both edges.

Advantages:
• Compact
• Easy to handle
• Inexpensive
• Permanently sequenced
• Can be used by individuals or larger groups
• Easily stopped or backed-up for review purposes

Disadvantages:
• Fixed sequence
• Cannot replace outdated frames
• Susceptible to damage
• Waning popularity
• Fades overtime
• Can be separated from set
• Replaced by videos and DVDs

Care:
• handle only by edges
• always trim rough ends before threading into projector
• check for damage after each use

Storage:
• store in dust proof container
• maintain at no more than 21°C with relative humidity between 15 & 50%

Overhead transparencies:
Advantages:
• info can be added and erased
• info can be covered and displayed at an appropriate rate
• inexpensive and easy to produce
• presenter at front facing audience
• sequence easily changed
• easy to replace out-dated transparencies
• can be used in lighted room allowing for eye contact, note taking, etc.
• easy to use
• can be printed/photocopied on, but this can not be erased

Disadvantages:
• projector may block view for some of audience
• subject to distortion known as keystone effect

Care:
• handle only by edges
• wipe clean with slightly damp cloth
• avoid getting transparency wet
o be aware of all points when dealing with washable ink

Storage:
• maintain at room temperature & relative humidity 50%
• store unmounted transparencies between pieces of plain paper in a binder, vertical file or special cabinet
• store mounted transparencies in envelopes in a vertical file or on storage shelves

Slides
Advantages:
• compact
• inexpensive
• order easily changed
• can synchronize with audio recordings
• easy to replace outdated slides
• fairly easy to replace damaged mounts

Disadvantages:
• easily lost
• cardboard mounts easily damaged and can jam equipment
• can become easily disorganized
• easy to orient incorrectly (upside down, backwards)
• need darkened room to see images properly
• fades over time

Care:
• damaged by humidity and heat
• avoid projecting for longer than one minute

Storage:
• maintain at room temp with r.h. between 15 & 40%
• store in plastic sleeves – labeled individually - that fit in binders, plastic trays, or carousels

16mm film
Advantages:
• cam be projected to large audiences
• more detailed than digital films

Disadvantages:
• needs darkened room
• colours fade with time
• difficult to reverse for review purposes
• when content dated must replace entire film
• most libraries no longer collecting 16mm films
• needs two light bulbs to push light through

Care:
• handle only by edges
• repair with splicing tape (resulting in missing sections)
• allow to come to room temp before projecting

Storage:
• store on reels large enough to leave a ½ inch space between edge of film and reel
• store reels in metal or plastic film containers
• store in racks on edge, if must be stored flat stack no more than 8 high
• store in a round canister; needs special shelving for reel
• maintain at room temp with r .h. between 30 & 50% for active collections
• do NOT store films with a magnetic soundtrack near a magnet or electric wire

Videotape:
Advantages:
• no processing required before viewing
• can be erased & reused
• less expensive than film
• self-contained & self-threading
• easy to edit with proper equipment

Disadvantages:
• picture quality low & deteriorates with use
• video cassettes difficult to splice
• can be erased & reused

Care:
• purchase good quality tape to avoid noise, stretching and breakage
• always check for cracked case before inserting in machine (cracked cases may damage camera or playback equipment)
• keep tape s away from electric motors & demagnetizers, do NOT place tapes on top of TVs or video monitors (chance of accidental erasure)
• after use return to case
• do NOT lift flap or touch tape with fingers
• to prevent accidental erasure remove tab on spine (tape spine to enable recording again)

Storage:
• store in case
• store on edge, not flat
• always rewind before storing
• maintain at between 15 & 25°C & r.h. at 50%
• do NOT store near any magnetic field

Additional formats
• microforms
o microfiche, microfilm
different considerations and properties
• videodisc/laserdisc
• DVD: see Dick, Jeff T. “DVD the Next Big (Digital Thing?” Library Journal 05/15/99, p. 50-51. Available fulltext on Academic Search Elite
• Taking Care of Your DVD http://www.alldvdmovies.com/dvd/caretips.htm
o clean DVDs from inside out
o clearly caught on
o more popular than videodisc
o easily available from Internet

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