Monday, June 19, 2017

Time management and the woman library manager

Gothberg, Helen M. “Time Management and the Woman Library Manager.” Library Journal v. 112 (May 1, 1987) 37-40.
Time Management and the Woman Library Manager
Making the best of dual work environments—career and home

YOU’VE GOT your first big break in library management, but after a few months on the job are beginning to wonder if you really can cut it. There never seems to be enough time to get everything done that’s expected of you. Your husband’s complaining about your long work hours, and the children are getting into trouble at school and constantly fighting among themselves. Or, maybe you are in a position where you feel you could and would like to move into a management role but are wondering if you will be faced with some of these problems. 
The dual environment
Does this mean women should stay out of management? Definitely not! But new women managers or women seeking management positions need to recognize the value of ETM – efficient time management – in their dual environments of career and home. Even before a woman takes a paying job, whether she is single or married, has a family or not, she is in most cases a home manager. While everyone, male or female, who moves into management for the first time will find ETM an important job skill, the woman manager soon learns that if she is not going to join the ranks of the harried, overworked executive, she will need ETM not only at work, but also at home. 
The Women’s Movement has brought about increased opportunities for women to move into positions of greater responsibility with better pay. Men are more open to sharing the workload at home, thus enabling women to take advantage of these opportunities. Yet, the primary responsibility for household management continues, for the most part, to belong to women. For today’s woman manager, the slogan “work smarter not harder” is not just a maxim but a survival necessity. 
Time, or its lack, according to some writers, is one of management’s most pressing problems. An American Management Association study indicated that most presidents and vice-presidents of U.S. companies work 62 hours a week or more. That’s an alarmingly high number of “workaholics.” If time is indeed the “stuff life is made of,” as Benjamin Franklin suggested, then it appears that managers are paying a very high price for their careers. Perhaps it is not time that needs to be managed—but ourselves. 
Experts on time management recommend that in order to develop ETM, you need to gain an accurate picture of how you are currently spending your time. Block out a grid with either 15-minute or half-hour intervals and write down what you have accomplished within each time frame. Chart your activities for a week, rating each one as A, B, or C in terms of priorities. 
If your work varies considerably, you will find it useful to pick three or four weeks out of the year to keep a time chart. If you don’t have time to keep such a record, have your secretary or other person keep it at work. You are probably on your own for keeping track of those hours away from work, but you could be lucky and talk a family member or find into keeping it for you. Once you have an accurate record of how you spend your time, you can identify where you are wasting it and then begin to make changes to improve your ETM. 
Phone call management
Many time wasters can be turned into time savers or can be effectively dealt with to one extent or another; take telephone calls for example. Few people could survive the busy and demanding life of a manager without a phone, but it is always at the top of the list in studies intended to identify the worst time wasters. The telephone can be a time saver if it takes the place of a meeting or helps to improve communication. 
Train your secretary or other staff members to screen calls. Be sure to leave a list of exceptions such as the mayor, president of the library board or city manager, and the child care center director. Not everyone will like it when they can’t get through to you, and you will need to weigh how serious this problem is against the need for ETM. If too many phone calls are a serious problem, take and return calls only at specific times of the day. When calling an individual who is loquacious, phone just before lunch or closing time. 
The meeting game
Meetings can either be time wasting or productive. Examine the need for frequent meetings to determine their necessity, and be sure to go in with a written and well-planned agenda. Keep the group on track by not permitting individuals to wander off onto topics not on the agenda. 
When the meeting is over, make two lists. One should note everything that you did right, and the second, what you could have done better. File the two lists and review them before your next assembly. Holding a meeting to determine how meetings could be shortened, made more productive, or just plain abolished might be a good idea. Remember, you will never be more effective in bringing about change than in your first six months to a year on the job. 
Nine steps to ETM
Most experts on time management agree on the basic steps necessary to achieve greater efficiency: 
1. LIST your goals. Note both long- and short-term goals. Include family as well as career goals, such as taking a vacation or sending a child to computer camp or to college.

2. NEXT, rank your goals as A—most important, B—second in importance, and C—least important. Reexamine your B goals and turn them either into A or C goals. Once you have established your A goals, discard the others.

3. SET priorities in terms of what you need to do to reach your A goals. We all know what those priorities are, but sometimes we get bogged down in doing tasks that lead nowhere.

4. MAKE a daily “To Do” list. If applicable, the woman manager will want to keep in mind her dual roles as library and home manager. It may even be useful to maintain two lists, one under each heading. Make each list at the same time of day.

5. PRIORITIZE your list. Not everything on the list is an A. File the Cs and start with the As remembering that the As are those tasks which are going to help you reach the priorities that you have set in terms of both long- and short-term goals.

6. CONTINUALLY ask yourself, “What is the best use of my time right now?” If you know that you are going to have a 15- or 20-minute wait at the dentist’s office, take along that professional journal article that you haven’t had the time to read, or put together the agenda for the next staff meeting. It may also be a time to sit and be quiet for a few minutes if that’s the best thing for you to be doing at the moment.

7. HANDLE each piece of paper only once. This recommendation is probably one of the most difficult for library managers. Librarians are awash in paper. In spite of computers and automation, paper remains much of what our work is about.

8. DELEGATE an appropriate amount of the workload. As a manager it is up to you to set parameters and guide others in the operation of the library.

9. DO it now! If you have earned a position as a library manager, you are probably not given to procrastination to any serious degree. However, there are always those jobs that few managers enjoy doing, such as preparation of the budget, writing the annual report, or doing staff performance evaluations. One way to make the job easier is to use the Swiss cheese approach—take one small bite of a large project at a time until it is completed. 
How accessible should you be?
Many managers like to maintain an open-door policy for both library staff and the public. It’s certain to be good for staff morale and public relations, but every person in a position of responsibility needs blocks of time to work and to think. Here again, a well-trained secretary can be a great help in screening people. 
Consider limiting the open-door policy to certain hours and days of the week, which can be flexible. One successful departmental head, without a secretary, had three signals using the door to her office to indicate her availability. A closed door meant that she was not to be disturbed unless it was an emergency; partly open indicated that she was working but could be disturbed for something important; and wide-open was an invitation to visitors. Her reference staff was quick to check the door before showing patrons to her office, and regulars soon learned to interpret the signals for themselves. 
Another factor that affects time is visitors. Understanding nonverbal communication can be useful: stand when a drop-in visitor comes to your office and do not ask the person to sit down. This action will keep the meeting short. Office arrangements affects the number of people who drop by. If your desk faces the door, you invite more people to walk in than if your back or profile is toward the door. This action will keep the meeting short. Office arrangements affects the number of people who drop by. If your desk faces the door, you invite more people to walk in than if your back or profile is toward the door. 
Preparing your staff
Every new manager should take time to discover whether a mission statement, along with recent goals and objectives, has been written for the library and major departments. Mission, goals, and objectives statements form the basis for development of policies and procedures—all of which should be in writing. If such statements do not exist or have not been revised within the last three to five years, they should be developed, with staff input, as soon as possible. 
Although much time is involved in such planning activities, they help ease the burden of confused responsibility and lines of authority, and help clarify communications. Every staff member should be familiar with the statements and be able to interpret them to the public with a conviction born out of understanding, because he or she has had a hand in shaping them. 
Emergences are difficult to anticipate. One time saver is to keep a list of emergency numbers at the reference and/or public service desks. A once-a-year briefing on disaster plans is a good idea, as is CPR training and a briefing from the local psychologist on how to cope with difficult or emotionally disturbed patrons. Other less catastrophic events also arise, and achievement-oriented people plan well ahead so they are not constantly putting out fires and missing deadlines. Setting up artificial deadlines that are earlier than the real ones and keeping clocks ahead of time are two ways to maintain EMT—even when a crisis does arise. 
People & their problems
The people you manage may come to you with personal problems. A wise woman manager will listen carefully and make notes for the individual’s personnel file, but will be cautious about falling needlessly into the “nurturing mother” role. Listen with understanding and empathy to staff’s problems is important to their morale, but it should never become an excuse for poor job performance—not for more than a short period of time. Nor should a manager attempt to counsel staff members about their personal lives. If problems persist and job performance is a serious problem, insist that the individual seek professional help. 
The chronic complainer is another story. One way to deal with this individual is to immediately turn the conversation to his or her work. Ask how a certain project is moving along or what does the person think about a given problem in the library. This communication tells the person you are interested in their work and their ideas, but you are not willing to spend time in a personal gripe session. 
Time wasters
There are many ways of wasting time, and you will be able to come up with a few of your own. Some of the most frequently noted time wasters from the literature on time management are listed below. They are divided between “external” or those time wasters that are essentially environmental, and “internal” or those which are closely related to our personalities and habits.
External time wasters Internal time wasters 
1. Telephone calls 1. Unclear communication with others
2. Meetings (both planned and unplanned) 2. Indecision and procrastination
3. Drop-in visitors 3. Attempting to do too much at once and estimating time unrealistically
4. A lack of objectives, policies, and procedures 4. Inability to say no
5. Handling emergencies 5. Personal disorganization, such as cluttered desk and/or inadequate filing system
6. Dealing with the personal problems of employees and patrons at work 6. Lack of self-discipline
7. Confused responsibility and lines of authority 7. Failure to delegate appropriately
Organized at work
If you are seriously interested in EMT, the internal time wasters are a good place to start because they are the ones over which you have the most control. Stephanie Winston, an expert on managing time and paperwork, believes that disorganization is a universal problem, and that the root of it is psychological. When the disorganization becomes chronic, the cause may go back to a parent who was too controlling. Old childhood habits of resistance can continue into the adult years without our even being aware of it. 
Clutter is one of the handmaidens of disorganization. Begin with keeping your desk well organized but also check out your handbag and briefcase. Do you really need all that stuff to carry around? 
Be certain that you are not doing excessive office record keeping. This practice is a symptom of insecurity. Comprehensive files are useful, but are they worth the time and money to keep up? What is the worst thing that could happen if you got rid of some files or part of their contents? Is there another source where you could locate the same information? One rule of thumb is that if you haven’t used it in a year, it probably should be filed in the wastebasket. Office filing items should be a librarian’s forte, but, all the same, remember not to overspecify the subjects on file folders. Regard a file that lacks bulk with suspicion: perhaps it could be combined with others. 
Paperwork can be one of a manager’s biggest headaches. Some EMT tips in this area include using speedletter forms with carbons already inserted with space for a reply. If possible, use a dictating machine or a microprocessor. A well-trained secretary can answer many letters with only a few notations on the original for guidance. Letter forms are also useful and can be personalized by changing a word here and there. 
Deal with correspondence and other paperwork during one period of the day, keeping in mind the maxim to handle paper only once. It is becoming an acceptable practice to answer some kinds of letters on the bottom of the original. Robert Townsend suggests that in order to speed up this process, correspondence should be answered on the top of the copy machine. Keep responses short and to the point; don’t perpetuate polysyllabic obfuscation. 
Organized at home
Getting organized at home is often as important for the woman library manager as it is at work. Stock your car with the essentials you need to keep it operating—a compressor for flat tires, extra belts, water in a hot climate, and traction grids in a cold one. Keep extra gloves, an umbrella, change, stamps, a city map, and other useful objects in the car. Organize shopping trips and errands so that you only need to make one trip instead of several. Better yet, consider whether you can afford to hire a service such as “Rent a Wife/Husband” to do it for you. 
Take care of yourself. Don’t try to do too many things simultaneously. Finish one large project before starting another. Bear in mind that there is difference between excellence and perfection. The first is striving for that which is attainable and gratifying; the second, not attainable and neurotic. It is not necessary to be perfect all the time and at everything you do. 
Nor does ETM mean scheduling every minute of the day and then killing yourself to accomplish unrealistic goals and objectives. ETM does mean working smarter, not harder, and building flexibility into your schedule. For example, don’t apologize for leaving a meeting that has gone on too long. Jean Fitzpatrick advises that the working woman flaunt her efficiency and make it known what she’s accomplished during a day—talking up her time-management efficiency. 
It may be a dichotomy, but managers need time out for relaxation and exercise to be more efficient. If you are too busy to exercise or spend time enjoying the company of friends and/or family, you are too busy for your own good. Pay attention to your eating habits as well. Large meals and alcohol are not a good idea for lunch; they make most people sluggish in the afternoon. 
You might find it helpful to postpone lunch until 1 p.m. so you can use the noon hour for work when you are less apt to be interrupted. Restaurant rush hour is over by that time, and you will get quicker service. Ross Webber, well-known management expert, reported that medical research supports skipping the working lunch in favor of eating alone because talking while eating is stressful. 
You can’t do everything
Delegating work is crucial to EMT—recognize that it is not a matter of dumping unpleasant work on subordinates. Giving more responsibility is one of the keys to better management and improved job performance as long as people have the skills or are given the training to carry out the work to both their and your satisfaction. 
One example of a failure to delegate is the library director being a member of every library committee. If a committee cannot function without her, then the manager should be the chair; otherwise, meet with committee heads in one meeting instead of many. Brief written reports of committee activities are appropriate to supplement such meetings. In making judgments about whether to delegate or not, consider these three guidelines: 
  1. Maintain control over those activities or projects where as a library manager you have considerable more expertise and information than your staff.
  2. Maintain control over those activities where change in current practice is involved.
  3. Delegate those activities or projects that are routine and maintain stability and work flow. 
Give thought and consideration to how in-service training or other educational opportunities could be used to broaden the responsibilities of professional and other library staff. A common example is training library assistants to answer ready-reference questions, especially in a library where a telephone reference service has been established. This leaves the professional reference librarian free to answer more difficult questions and assume greater management responsibility. 
A word of caution is in order here. When you take away lesser job opportunities and give them to a person in a lower-ranked position, let the person whose duties you are going to change know that you feel he or she is good on the job and capable of doing more sophisticated work. 
Don’t permit others to make too many demands on your time, including staff who want to delegate their problems upward. Expect achievement, keep organizational structure as uncomplicated as possible, and encourage staff competence with the zest of a football coach. Learn to say no. Although our society is changing, many women are products of earlier environments where they were expected to always provide support and nurturing. Don’t be afraid to say no to a superior if the demand is unrealistic or the deadline impossible. 
Webber reported on one study which indicated that managers who ignored demands that interfered with their own job performance were given higher rating by their supervisors than those who conformed. If you are new to the community or state, or are a new library director, every library professional organization and local community service organization is going to want a piece of your time. Give yourself a few months on the job before accepting outside obligations. Suggest that one of your staff would be suitable, thereby giving others an opportunity to grow and yourself time to learn the job. You will also gain time to find out which organizations will be helpful in achieving your priorities. 
Effective time management takes self-discipline and effort. In some initial cases you must spend time to gain it later on. Keep in mind the words of an anonymous philosopher: 
Yesterday is a cancelled check.
Tomorrow is a promissory note.
Today is ready cash. Use it!
Askenas, Ronald N. & Robert M. Schafer, “Time: Managers Can Avoid Wasting It,” Working Woman, January 1984, p. 38-43.

Bliss, Edwin C. Getting Things Done: the ABC’s of Time Management. Scribner, 1976.

Braid, Robert W., “Learning To Say No,” Supervisory Management, July 1983, p. 9-14.

Davenport, Rita. Making Time, Making Money: a Step-by-Step Program for Setting Your Goals and Achieving Your Success. St. Martin’s, 1982.

Fitzpatrick, Jean Grasso, “Time: Stop Working Late,” Working Woman, October 1983, p. 7, 72.

Heyel, Carl. Getting Results with Time Management, 2d ed. rev. by David V. Lewis. Chicago: Education for Management, 1987.

Lakein, Alan. How To Get Control of Your Time and Your Life. Peter H. Wyden, Inc., 1973.

Mackenzie, R. Alec. The Time Trap. AMACOM: American Management Assn.m 1972.

LeBoeuf, Michael, “Managing Time Means Managing Yourself,” Business Horizons, February 1980, p. 41-46.

Roe, Jessica, “The Top 20 Time-Wasters,” Working Woman, October 1982, p. 74.

Steffen, R. James. “How To Stop Wasting Time,” Supervisory Management, May 1982, p. 22-25.

Townsend, Robert. Up the Organization. Knopf, 1970. rev. 1984 under the title Further Up the Organization.

Webber, Ross A. “Finding More Time,” Working Woman, October 1982, p. 113-116.

Winston, Stephanie. “How To Get Organized at Work and Home,” U.S. News & World Report, May 7, 1979, p. 76-81.

Helen M. Gothberg is Associate Professor, Graduate Library School, University of Arizona, Tucson

Monday, June 12, 2017

Do it now

Gleeson, Kerry. “Do It Now.” Executive Female, Jan/Feb 95, Vol. 18, Issue 1, p. 50-55.

Now! No doubt you hear the word all the time. If not from your boss, your spouse or your child, you hear it from advertisers and salespeople. Some days it seems everyone and everything is demanding something now, this moment, immediately.

Time-management gurus often tell us we should ignore all the things that clamor for our urgent attention, including the telephone. They tell us we shouldn’t react to circumstances and people around us; instead, we should organize, set priorities and gain control of our lives by putting off some tasks and focusing our attention on those activities that are “most important” or “first things” or “top priorities”.

I take a contrarian view. While planning, setting goals and priorities have a place, too often, when we set priorities, we do not seem to get around to everything on our lists. “Less important” activities get shoved into the closet by “more important” activities. Eventually, the “less important” things rot there. Not surprisingly, when they start to stink, they become very high priorities. And guess who has to clean up the mess? You do, of course—now!

The method you’re going to learn here is the Do It Now approach. And at the risk of boring you, I’m going to repeat those three little words again and again, in the hope they’ll sink in.

By choosing to Do It Now, you make now your ally, not your enemy. Doing it now enables you to be better organized; to exercise greater control over the when, where and how to what you’re doing; and to feel better about yourself and your performance.

Does the following scenario sound familiar?
You arrive at the office, sit down, look at the papers spread out on your desk, and pick one of them up. It’s from Mary. “Oh, I have to call Mary,” you say. Dutifully, you start a To Do pile somewhere on your desk, and that paper goes into the pile. You pick up another piece of paper, this one a letter of complaint. You think, “I have to answer this letter.” It goes on the To Do pile. The third piece of paper outlines a problem to be handled. “I have to talk to the boss about this,” you mumble, and onto the To Do pile it goes. You pick up the fourth piece of paper and say, “This isn’t important. I can do it later.” You create a Do Later stack next to your growing To Do pile, and so on. You end up shuffling through your various stacks of paper, and by the time you actually get back to your To Do pile and read through each piece again, you’ve wasted time reading everything twice. In effect, you’ve done the work twice, doubling your time commitment but accomplishing little.

In fact, many of us look at our papers three, four or five times before we ever act on them. It takes a lot longer to do something four or five times than it does to do it once.

The first rule for improving personal efficiency is:
Act on an item the first time you touch it or read it.

I’m not talking about those things that you can’t do now or even those things you shouldn’t do now. Clearly, priorities do play an important part in productive work and in achieving results. Common sense is a necessity; it should be a given that the way to increase your personal efficiency is not to Do Something Stupid.

I’m talking about all the things that you could and should do, but you don’t—routine paperwork of the sort you encounter every day. Call Mary. Answer the customer’s letter of complaint. Act on that voice mail as you listen. Take care of these things the first time you touch them, and you’ll be amazed at how little time they actually take and how good you feel when you have finished them.

Start with your desk or work space
When people ask me for my help, the first thing I do is put them through a personal desk cleaning. I actually go to the person’s desk and sort through all her papers with her. I’ll pick up a piece of paper and ask her what it is. She says, “Uh, well, that’s something I was supposed to respond to.”

Then she starts to put it somewhere, but I stop her. “Hold it a second. Why are you putting it over there?”

She gives me an incredulous look and says, “Well, I have to do it, so I put it over there.”

“Well, let’s Do It Now.”

“You want me to Do It Now? It could take quite a bit of time…”

“I don’t mind. I’ll sit here while you do it.”

And she does it. Usually I clock it. And I say, “How long did that take?”

“One minute,” she says, or “three minutes,” or whatever it took.

“Look at that,” I tell her. “See?”

“Yeah,” she says, “it didn’t take much time at all.”

And I say, “I was hoping you’d notice that.”

When this task is done the first time, it makes people uncomfortable. They do it, but they usually haven’t grasped the concept yet, even though we talk about it and ask them to commit themselves to it. What they don’t understand is that Do It Now is meant to be permanent and ongoing.

This is evident when I go back for a follow-up visit. Usually they’ve cleaned up their office or work space in anticipation of my coming, with everything stacked neatly into piles. They’re very proud. But clearly they don’t get the concept. Only by working with this concept consistently over time—as do I—do you begin to see more and more evidence for acting the first time. All the reasons people make up for why they can’t or shouldn’t act now really don’t hold water.

A first visit with one client included a thorough desk cleaning. We worked through every item on her desk, one at a time, until everything had been done that could be done. We talked about acting on things the first time—about doing it now—and she was so impressed that she committed herself to the whole concept of Do It Now as her new work philosophy.

When I went back for a follow-up visit, I hardly made it through the door before she started telling me that Do It Now was the greatest thing that had ever happened to her. She was very enthusiastic about the program and about the change it had made in her life.

Then I picked up the papers from her pending basket. The first piece of paper in it was a phone message. I said, “Why don’t we call her now?”

She frowned just a little. “Now?” she said.

And I said, “Yes.”

And so she picked up the phone and returned the call. By the end of our meeting, we’d gone through every single piece of paper in her pending basket.

Obviously my one visit hadn’t changed her definition of the word pending.

Let me emphasize: Do It Now means do it now, regularly and consistently, day after day. Not doing it now is what got you into trouble in the first place. Your pending basket is for things you can’t do now, for things that are out of your control. For example, you call Mary back on Monday because that’s when she’s back from vacation, not because Monday seems like a good day to do it. That’s pending.

Grasp the concept of Do It Now—and function accordingly each and every day—and these simple words will literally change the way you approach both your work and your life.

Six ways to stop procrastinating—now
Most people are very clever about putting things off. “I don’t have time” is just the beginning. Others include: “I think he said he was not going to be there today, so I didn’t bother to call.” “This could take forever, so I had better wait until I have a free day to start.” “It’s not so important.” The list is endless.

My approach is this: Be as clever about completing things as you’ve been putting them off. Ask yourself: Where else could I get this information? Who could this task be delegated to? How can I get this job done? How can I get that letter, that folder or that report out of my basket and off my desk so that I never have to look at it again? That’s where you should focus your brainpower—not on clever excuses.

This may sound simple, but it’s a bitter pill to swallow. Too often the reason you’re not getting things done is that… you’re just not doing them. You can learn how to overcome procrastination and to increase your personal productivity, though. How? The following strategies can benefit you immediately and immensely.

1. Do it once
Sorting through all the papers on your desk and creating To Do and Do Later piles for yourself is a common practice. One woman I know regularly create piles. The first time through she calls it “reading for familiarity.” The second read-through is her “action” read, unless she sets it aside “to do later.” This woman is a cum laude graduate of a prestigious university, handling a responsible position in business!

Needlessly rereading everything on your desk achieves nothing. Answer the letter the first time you read it through—Do It Now—and you save time, move toward customer satisfaction and accomplish a task that otherwise prevents you from doing more important things.

2. Clear your mind
A client once described to me what it was like for him to drive home from work at the end of the day. He would drive past a gas station and think: “I must get a spare tire for my car. I had a flat some time ago and have not gotten around to getting the spare.” On he would drive, past a pharmacy, and think: “Vitamin C. We need vitamin C. Winter is coming, and we need it for the expected sniffles.” He wold drive past a supermarket and think: “My wife wanted me to pick up bread. Ah, I don’t feel like it.” By the time he got home, he would be breathing hard. He needed a drink to calm down. He had done nothing, but he felt as if he had worked hard. He was exhausted from procrastination.

If you are a procrastinator, the sheer volume of incomplete activities in your work and your life distracts you from concentrating on and completing what’s in front of you. This is where priorities fit into the picture.

Have you ever made a list of ten things to do, only to have the bottom five never change? We tend to neglect lower-priority items. Yet we still consider these things to be important.

My view is that things either should or should not be done. If deadlines are involved, certainly they must be considered, but if something else is important enough to do, do it. Otherwise, don’t.

3. Solve problems while they’re small
Sometimes I point out a questionable stack of papers on the corner of someone’s desk. Rather sheepishly, they admit, “It’s my problem pile. I figure if those papers sit there long enough, they’ll go away.” And sometimes they do.

Murphy’s Law says: If anything can go wrong, it will. Here’s a corollary to Murphy’s Law: If there are ten possibilities of things that can go wrong, you can be sure that the one thing that does go wrong will cause the most damage. Maybe most of those items in your problem pile will go away if you let them sit long enough. But you can be sure the one problem you don’t want to happen will be the one that happens.

Get into the habit of acting on these things now, and you’ll catch problems when they’re still small, before they become big, time-consuming crises. You’ll have more time to concentrate on the important things.

4. Clean up backlogs
Backlogs create their own additional work, so eliminating them cuts down your work load more than you can imagine. There are five essential steps for handling backlogs.
a. Identify the backlogs.
b. Set priorities for which backlogs to clean up first.
c. Schedule time each day to take a piece of the backlog and clean it up.
d. Identify the cause of the backlog.
e. Remedy the cause to prevent any further buildup of backlogs.

5. Stop worrying about it

Almost everyone tends to put off unpleasant tasks. Facing up to them and completing them isn’t easy, but the consequences of not doing them can be much worse.

To compound the problem, most people who procrastinate not only don’t do the task, they also tend to dwell on the unfinished or undone task and worry about not having done it. This worry consumes far more time than people may realize.

Think of some of the problems you’ve had to face in the past. Did dwelling on them get you anywhere? No. It was only when you finally initiated some action that the problem began to be resolved.

Most of us tend to exaggerate how long an unpleasant task will take or how unpleasant it really is. We dread it, so we put it off. The trick is to choose the task you enjoy least and do it first. This lets you win in two ways: Your second task of the day will seem easier, and completing the worst task tends to give your self-confidence a boost.

6. Now feel better about yourself
Procrastination and its attendant cover-ups create a buildup of negative emotions not always evident on the surface. By committing yourself to Do It Now, completing the hard jobs first, and handling the big jobs bite-by-bite, you’ll eliminate a tremendous load of stress and anxiety and gain self-confidence and self-respect.

Finally, cultivate decisiveness
Successful people in general take little time to make a decision, but they take a long time to change a decision once it has been made.

If decisiveness is a weak spot with you, there’s an easy way to handle the quandary. Simply imagine the worst possible consequences of any decision you can make, and ask yourself if you can live with those consequences. If the answer is yes, go for it.

I’ve seen decisive people make the wrong decisions. Nevertheless they usually make their objective happen anyway. The act of deciding may, in fact, be more important than the correctness of the actual decision and have more influence on the consequences.

Procrastination itself is only a bad habit. Do It Now substitutes an action-oriented behavior for the “do it later” behavior. You act before the mental barriers are activated, so you don’t have time to think, “It’s too hard; maybe it will go away; I’m not in the mood; I don’t feel like it.”

A common word heard when discussing the subject of changing behavior is discipline. “If I had more discipline, I would be able to exercise, stop smoking, diet.” While discipline plays a part, I believe it is a red herring. If you exert discipline enough to establish a routine, you make a new habit. The habit helps you maintain it. Discipline yourself to act now, and it will very soon become a habit. Then the habit will lessen the need for discipline. William James, whose studies of human behavior are well known, suggested that if you do something every day for 30 days, it will become a habit. Try it with Do It Now.

To be honest, this is more than dealing with procrastination. It is a philosophy toward work and life. It is the view: “I am proactive; I am action-oriented; I am bigger than the problems I face.” These characteristics begin (and end) with how you face up to and habitually act on the small details of work and life.

So what is the first thing you should Do Now? Go ahead—write it down. Focus on first things. Get yourself organized. Do It Now, and do it better!
By Kerry Gleeson
Kerry Gleeson is the founder of the Institute for Business Technology, a consulting firm specializing in white-collar efficiency and production improvement in Boca Raton, Florida.

Monday, June 5, 2017

Time management

How pleasant it is, at the end of the day,
No follies to have to repent;
But to reflect on the past and be able to say,
That my time has been properly spent.

By Jane Taylor. Rhymes for the Nursery. The Way to be Happy.

Three rules of time management

  • Know thyself!
    • Know how you react, approaches to efficiency, life, yourself
  • Just say no!
    • “In a nice way”; most people are flattered, want to do the job. The more confident they are, the harder it becomes to refuse.
  • Just do it!
Feeling overwhelmed?

  • The five mega-realities
    • Population growth
    • Expanding volume of knowledge
      • Provide access to print formats
    • Media growth and electronic addition
      • Sensation attracts attention
    • Paper trail culture
    • Over-abundance of choices
Ten ways to be more productive
How is time spent? Keep track of accomplishments and priorities. Know how time is spent. Identify time wasters.

  • The to-do list
    • Short
    • Manageable
    • 3-5 items
    • Then prioritize
  • Prioritize
    • Schedule
  • Avoid scraps of paper
  • Buy an organizer/planner
    • Keep to one
  • Write scripts for phone calls
  • Learn to say NO
  • Recognize your peak energy times
  • Stop being the designated expert
    • No one likes the know-it-all
  • Avoid unnecessary meetings
    • Use body language
  • Discourage impromptu visitors
Why do we procrastinate?

  • Lack of confidence in the ability to perform
  • Failure to set goals and establish priorities
  • Becoming overwhelmed by a seemingly insurmountable task
  • Fearing the consequences of failure or success
  • Not knowing how to plan activities

The one single task strategy

  • Define the goal
  • Think backward (divide and conquer)
  • Define one single task
  • Focus only on that task
The four D’s approach to paper clutter

  • Do it now
  • Delegate it to someone
  • Delay it
  • Drop it in the wastebasket
Time management at home

  • Outsourcing
    • Housework
    • Yard work
  • Using your computer to its fullest
    • Calendar/Planner software
    • Word Processing software
    • Database Management software
    • Electronic Banking/Bill Payment
    • Electronic shopping
  • Streamline tasks/errands
Time shift rituals
  • Drive 10 mph slower
  • Take a moment before eating
  • Spend five minutes in your driveway before entering your house
  • Shower after work
  • Honor the process itself
Suggested readings
  • Albsmeyer, Betty. “Interruptions and Crises – It’s a Normal Day.” The U*N*A*B*A*S*H*E*DTM Librarian (Issue #64): 8
  • Berner, Andrew. “The Importance of Time Management in a Small Library.” Special Libraries v. 78 (Fall 1987): 271-276.
  • Davidson, Jeff. “’Overworked Americans’ or Overwhelmed Americans”. Business Horizons v. 37 (January/February 1994): 62-66.
  • *Gleeson, Kerry. “Do It Now: Put These Three Words on Your Wall, Write Them on Your Calendar, They will Surely Change Your Life.” Executive Female v. 18 (Jan/Feb 1995): 50-54.
  • *Gothberg, Helen M. “Time Management and the Woman Library Manager.” Library Journal v. 112 (May 1, 1987): 37-40.
  • Rechtschaffen, Stephan. “Time-Shifting: Slowing Down to live Longer.” Psychology Today v. 26 (Nov/Dec 1993): 32-36.
  • Stoffer, Shellie. “Time and Life Management from Both Sides of the Brain.” Journal for Quality & Participation v. 17 (June 1994): 84-87.
  • Wheeler, Carol. “Just (Don’t) Do It: Time Management Tips for Recovering those Lost Hours – and Your Peace of Mind.” Executive Female v. 20 (May/June 1997): 42-45.
  • Yeager, Neil. “30 Things You can do to Save Time Today.” Women in Business. v. 44 (March 1992): 14-15. 

Monday, May 29, 2017

Mission, goals and objectives exercise

Library Type:

Mission Statement:
Anytown Public Library strives to meet the information, educational and recreational needs of the people of Anytown to assist them in achieving their lifelong individual goals and in improving their quality of life.

To improve library services to young adults and children.

Increase programmes offered to young adults and children by 50% within the next two years.


  1. Identify popular topics to specific age groups, identify programmes geared towards them.
  2. Determine budget, staff resourcing and advertisement.

Library Type:

Mission Statement:
Ridgemount High School Library strives to support the educational program by providing timely, innovative and relevant services and materials. 

To improve the quality and currency of health materials.

Increase online subscriptions to journal and databases in the health field by 5% in the year 2005.


  1. Consult teaching staff to identify curriculum requirements.
  2. Consult other schools in division with what they are currently using and what could be shared.
  3. Consult major reviews selecting tool.

Library Type:

Mission Statement:
Duckburg University Library strives to support learning and research at Duckburg University by providing access to timely and relevant world knowledge.

To increase use of library resources by students in the faculties of science and engineering.

Increase circulation statistics by science and engineering students by 10% in one year.


  1. Subscribe to more science and engineering databases.
  2. Survey faculty for materials requirements.
  3. Increase advertising.
  4. More e-reserves.
  5. Offer workshops on how to search databases.
  6. Publicity.
  7. Display projects linked to resources.

Library Type:

Mission Statement:
The Corporate Library contributes to the mission of Healthy Way Products by providing timely and relevant information and services to all departments to assist them meeting their goals. 

To improve resource sharing with other libraries.


To improve resource sharing by 5% by June 2005.


  1. Join Amicus.
  2. Train staff in using Amicus.
  3. Current awareness in non-library staff.
  4. Join resource sharing group (also objective)

Monday, May 22, 2017


Why should we plan?

  • To assist us to get from where we are to where we would like to be or should be
Why don’t we plan?

  • Planning can be
    • Difficult
    • Time consuming
    • Confusing
You know, we really should plan!

What exactly is planning?
  • An analytical process involving:
    • Assessment of the future
    • Determining desired objectives
      • e.g., moving building to have new space, or revamp building
    • Developing several courses of action
    • Selecting appropriate course(s) of action
    • Think ahead to choose the best course of action.
Long range or strategic plan
  • Time frames such as:
    • 2-year plan
    • 5-year plan
    • 10-year plan
It’s hard to think in terms of 10 years because of ever changing technology.

Short term plan (operational)
  • Open eyes
  • Lift head
  • Move leg
  • Move other leg
  • Sit up
  • Yawn
  • Stretch
  • Put on slippers
  • Stand up slowly
  • Getting through specific tasks with lists of accomplishments 
Two levels of planning
  • Departmental or unit level
  • Overall plan for entire organization
Steps in strategic planning
  • Identify values, assumptions and beliefs
  • Conduct an environmental scan
  • Do a SWOT or PEST analysis
  • Create a vision and mission for the library
  • Develop goals and objectives
  • Implement the plan
  • Evaluate the plan and start again
Values and assumptions
  • Value
    • Respectful workplace
  • Assumption
    • Technology will continue to play a significant role on the library as it enters the next millennium
Environmental scan
  • Beyond the library
  • Analysis
    • SWOT
      • Internal and external
        • Internal
          • Strengths
          • Weaknesses
        • External
          • Opportunities
          • Threats
    • PEST
      • Restraints
        • Political
        • Economical
        • Social
        • Technological
Visions versus missions
  • Vision statement
    • Future oriented and almost out of reach
    • An ideal
  • Mission statement
    • Philosophical statement of overall purpose 

Sample plans and mission statements on the web
U of M.

Vancouver Public Library. Mission, Vision, Values and Goals

Goals and objectives
  • Goals
    • Broad statements stating how library will achieve its mission
    • Time frames are still 3-5 years
    • Strategic
  • Objectives
    • Specific, measurable and time limited actions in support of goals
    • Time sensitive
Goals often cover broad areas such as 
  • Services
  • Collections
  • Facilities
  • Funding
  • Staffing

  • Goal: To provide materials in a variety of formats as identified by public need and use
  • Objective: To provide a catalogued book collection of two volumes per capita by the year 2000
  • Action: By an increase in the collection of 2% annually
  • Objective: To provide an adequate ethnic collection by the year 2000
  • Action: By identifying the major language groups by June 1999 and acquiring at least 1,000 volumes annually in those languages

    Implementing the plan and evaluation
  • Set priorities
  • Allocate staff/resources
  • Establish time frame and when milestones should occur or products/services be developed
  • Communicate plan
  • Monitor, evaluate, adjust, start all over

Monday, May 15, 2017

Marketing measures for information services

Zachret, Martha Jane and Williams, Robert V. Marketing Measures for Information Services. Special Libraries 77 (Spring 1986) pp. 61-70

Monday, May 8, 2017

Tapping into the zen of marketing

St. Lifer, Evan, Albanese, Andrew R., Tapping into the zen of marketing. Library Journal. 05/01/2001, Vol. 126, Issue 8
Tapping into the Zen of marketing
Libraries strut their stuff and gather insightful data with a more retail-oriented approach to pursuing new patrons
LATE IN 1999, Ohio’s Lakewood Public Library recognized it had a problem or, more aptly, a challenge: after running some studies on its service area, it discovered that one of its biggest subset of residents was hardly using the library. “Many people had a perception of Lakewood as being a city of families and senior citizens,” said John Guscott, Lakewood PL’s manager of electronic services. “Our experiences at the library over the past few years suggested otherwise-that it was fast becoming a city dominated by young, professional (but nonmainstream) singles.”
As a group, there was very little in the collection specific to Gen Xers to pique their somewhat bohemian, countercultural lifestyles. Further, library staff didn’t know enough about them to offer materials that catered to their literary and musical proclivities. 
Lakewood’s problem was not unusual: traditional libraries have had a difficult time reaching Gen Xers, and the rise of the Internet hasn’t made that job any less difficult. 
Today, Lakewood has no such problem. The Gen X crowd frequents the library for a rich array of programming and diverse book and CD collections just for them. “Our circ for audio CDs has just flown off the charts,” says Guscott. 
The elusive Gen Xer
The story of how Lakewood PL was able to identify and target this significant subset, learn more about its predilections, and then act on that profile by delivering more materials that would attract that elusive group is a testament to libraries’ newfound willingness to employ marketing techniques and a service imperative once reserved for retail operations. Lakewood PL’s ability to ferret out this missing chunk of potential patron base stems from the research efforts of Guscott. A Gen Xer himself at 29, Guscott employed two techniques referred to in marketing parlance as “market segmentation” and “geodemographics.” Essentially, both processes allow the user to slice and dice potential patrons into meaningful, definable cross sections.
Gusscott worked with a program called “You Are Where You Live” (YAWYL) (www.delluke.claritas.conff YAWUL/aboutprizm.wjsp) created by Claritas and its net-based arm, ClaritasExpress, which offers marketing solutions and software. YAWYL is part of Claritas’s PRIZM lifestyle segmentation system, which is based on the premise that people with similar lifestyles tend to live near each other. According to web site information, PRIZM defines every neighbourhood in the United States in terms of demographically and behaviorally distinct types or “clusters”.
Guscott had a conversation with Lakewood PL Director Ken Warren in December 1999 to address the need to define and pursue dormant subsets of the library’s patron base. Less than two months later, Guscott submitted to his boss a marketing report using the PRIZM software, having divided residents in the Lakewood PL service area into nine clusters, ranked by sixe. For example, Guscott classified the largest cluster as “Urban Achievers,” documenting how many lived in Lakewood, 14,433, which he calculated comprised nearly 26 percent of Lakewood PL’s total population in its service area. He also compiled some very specific information about their ethnicity, age range, level of education, type of information (e.g. “white collar/professional”), type of housing (rent or own), median income, median home value, key issues (“gay rights or environmental protection”) and politics (e.g., “liberal independent”).
Targeting consumer tastes
However, the most intriguing part of the cluster profile and the area that provided Lakewood PL with the most insight into each duster’s general consumer tastes was the section entitled Consumer Pattern. Here the first group and largest cluster, Urban Achievers, were characterized as “behaving like middle-class sophisticates” and gravitating toward a welter of consumer outlets, products, and brands, including “speciality shops, ethnic markets, family restaurants, delis, sushi bars, taco joints, Nordstorm, jazz music, Kias, Volkswagens, and Nissans.” Their composite “Interests” were also telling: “multiculturalism, intellectually challenging pursuits, theater, adult education, libraries, public broadcasting, and alternative health.”

“Any kind of cluster has basic values and what you want to do is find out what those values are and reflect that in your collection while leaving some room for discovery at the library,” says Guscott. “Then we took it to the next step and figured out the programming and content that would attract them to the library.”

However, the notion that all libraries are forever trying to drive usage by figuring out ways to expand their patron base is not realistic. Faced with limited financial resources and an often overburdened staff, many libraries are simply trying to provide first-rate service to the patrons they already have.”

“Usually people who use the library love the library,” reasons William Ptacek, director of the King County Library System (KCLS), Seaule, one of the busiest libraries in the country based on its record of circulating roughly 13 million books annually. “So there hasn’t been a good incentive to seek out ways to better serve customers or recruit new ones because we have so many using the library already.”

Arming the noncompetitor
Thus libraries haven’t traditionally behaved competitively by seeking to stake a claim to a specific constitution or audience. Now, however, with incursions being made on a number of fronts, e.g., bookstores and the Internet, some librarians have pushed their organizations to think about pursuing new patrons more aggressively. “We know that we have to compete to get business, and libraries typically haven’t thought that way,” says Gale Group CEO Allen Paschal. “Prior to the electronic age, they were the [undisputed] foundation for information in their communities, and now there is competition from AOL and Yahoo. Thus there is a danger that the virtual library will pass them by if they don’t let people know they are at the center of the information universe.”

Paschal admits that libraries’ reticence in marketing their virtues has “bothered” him because “libraries have better information and people don’t know it.” He readily acknowledges Gale’s vested interest—“obviously our existence goes hand-in-hand with libraries”—in attempting to help them market themselves more effectively.

Sensitive to librarians’ increasing desire to tout their institutions while lacking the financial wherewithal or expertise to do it, Gales has posted at its web site ( an assortment of free downloadable marketing resources based on the company’s “Find yourself in the library” campaign. Libraries can customize these resources to address their own marketing objectives.

Billboards for LOUIS
Gale has also invested in an experimental marketing foray with Louisiana’s LOUIS system, a statewide library consortium consisting of more than 120 public, academic, and school libraries. In an effort to help LOUIS push the visibility of its homepage ( as a statewide access point for an extensive army of online databases and resources, Gale paid for a billboard advertising campaign. Although LOUIS Director Ralph Bee concedes the “full impact of the billboards has not been felt yet,” Gale officials say they are willing to experiment and include value-added marketing strategies and investments in their future dealings with libraries.

King County’s Ptacek has fought against the strategically limiting axiom of “doing the best we can for the people we have” with some innovative marketing efforts that have pushed library use in his area to even higher levels. Ptacek details the source of his motivation. “I don’t think it’s a given that people will always use libraries and think about them the same way they do now.” King County employed a strategy of brand marketing in an effort to drive use of its electronic resources and databases. “We were spending all this money on databases and people weren’t using them as much as we would’ve liked,” explains Ptacek. The centerpiece of KCLS’s brand marketing strategy was a campaign to circulate 600,000 library cards to every student in King County.

Several months before kicking off the campaign, Ptacek and his staff deliberately embarked on a process of discovery, by hiring a pollster to “do an analysis of our market,” increasingly the telltale sign of a marketing-savvy library. In fact, Ptacek says he keeps a local research firm on retainer to help formulate focus groups and other data-gathering endeavours. According to Ptacek, the pollster gave them a good news/not-so-good news scenario: while 75 percent of the 400 family households said they had used a King County library in the last year, only 25 percent of this highly wired community said they had connected to KCLS’s homepage. Ptacek thought the library card campaign could literally double the homepage access rate to 50 percent of all King County family households.

KCLS’s library foundation kicked in $150,000 to pay for promotion of the campaign and also paid for all of the library cards. Ptacek says the campaign was a huge success: database use via the KCLS homepage rose from a precampaign average of 300,000 hits per month, to more than 700,000 hits per month.

Low-budgeting marketing
However, the country is chock-full of a whole cross section of libraries that could never afford to keep a marketing firm on retainer. Even among those that have a foundation, there is little chance that they could appropriate foundation money for promotion or research when an infusion of new materials or technology upgrades beckon. So what is a less affluent library to do?

“We’re always looking for people who don’t use the library,” says Nancy Dowell, director of the Vigo County PL (VCPL), IN. “We take advantage of all the demographic information we can get our hands on.” In an effort to save money and pool resources, VCPL has sought to partner with other local agencies, businesses, or institutions to promote a local event. The library’s sponsorship and promotion of “Family Learning Day” in downtown Terre Haute with the local business association garnered it the 2001 Marketing of the Year Award from the Wabash Valley Chapter of the American Marketing Association. Dowell says the library sought to promote the revitalization of the economically blighted downtown in combination with the concept of family literacy.

In some cases, perception is just as important as any well-oiled, assiduously researched marketing plan. Ferguson PL Director Emie DiMattia’s goal of having a Starbucks on its premises was to “add quality to the experience of those who currently use the library.” But, most importantly, says DiMattia, was the public perception of the library, based in downtown Stamford, CT, as a relatively “in” place. Ferguson is only the second public library to house a full-service Starbucks franchise. DiMattia and staff have added other touches: a passport office and a “Friends of the Ferguson Library Used Bookshop.”

According to Greg Buss, chief librarian at British Columbia’s Public Library, the staff didn’t have to hire any market research firms or pore over demographic, data to discern the needs of the public. Buss says staff simply “took very seriously” the patron comment forms that most libraries offer. The types of things on the public’s wish list are not uncommon to any public librarian. “They wanted longer hours, more technology, more books, and more personalized service—really more of everything,” he says. “Customers have never been shy about what they want, but I think we have been shy in giving it to them.”

Slicing and dicing the constituency: a comparison of two of Lakewood, OH’s “Clusters”

Bohemian Mix American Dreams
Percent living in Lakewood 18.9% (1.7%of U.S.) 5.0% (1.4% of U.S.)
Number living in Lakewood 10,967 2,828
Cluster rank for Lakewood 2 6
Description Progressive, eclectic group of executives, students, artists, and writers;
live in rented high-rises; very few children;
75% single or divorced;
33% are gay
Immigrants and descendants who typify the American Dream;
affluent married couples with or without children who work hard at multiple trades and public service jobs;
often have big families
Family types Single Mixed
Ethnicity Ethnically diverse Ethnically diverse
Predominant Age Range 25-44 Mixed
Education College Graduate Some College,
College Graduate
Employment Professional White Collar
Housing Type Rental of Multi-Unit Owner of Single-Unit
Median Income Mid to High 30K Low to Mid 50K
Median Home Value $135,452 $180,900
Politics Liberal DemocratLiberal Democrat
Key Issues Gay rights,
legalizing marijuana,
defusing racial tensions
Gun control,
pro-life movement,
eliminating affirmative action
Consumer Pattern Early adopter consumer pattern,
quick to try new products,
imported goods,
especially wine,
beer, and cheese,
organic foods,
fashion forward,
subcompact cars,
anti-mainstream brands,
New cars, boats,
recreational vehicles,
designer labels,

Is the “Library of the Future” the future of the library?
How many libraries allow food and drink anywhere in the building and call its most heavily used room the “living room”? With its newfangled Ironwood branch, British Columbia’s Richmond PL is recasting the conventional notions of what a library can and should be.

Although the idea of allowing kids to do their homework while they lay sprawled on the floor munching potato chips and sipping soda might be anathema to some librarians, most sit up and take notice of some of Ironwood’s gaudy annual usage numbers: 12,000 program attendees and 100,000 hours of net time used. Perhaps most impressive are its circulation statistics: the library circulates more than 750,000 items annually, which means it circulates its 65,000-item collection more than 11 times. Ironwood, at 12,000 square feet, does this with 13 FEEs.

Apparently the public library world has taken notice. Public library officials from King County, San Jose, Solano County, Santa Clara, New York, Chicago, and southern New Jersey have all made pilgramages to British Columbia to talk to Chief Librarian Greg Buss and Deputy Chief Librarian Cate McNeely about Richmond PL’s self-anointed “Library of the Future.”
The concept for the Ironwood branch came from a “series of epiphanies” that occurred from looking at trends and developments outside the library. Perhaps most important, staff noticed the emerging trend of self-service in the retail sector and considered how to adapt it to a new branch library in which they could incorporate innovations from the ground up.  
Their idea, according to McNeely, was to automate certain library functions, checking out books principal among them, to “free up the library staff to have more meaningful interactions with customers.”  
One of the main lessons learned from developing the forward-thinking Ironwood branch was that it could be done without huge infusions of money, said Buss. “It required a lot of planning and really working together with the staff, the board, and the community. It’s not impossible to have a library with a good selection of books and the latest technology,” he said. “You can have food in the library and the world won’t fall apart.”

Monday, May 1, 2017

Marketing the worth of your library

Sass, Rivkah K., Marketing the worth of your library. Library Journal, 6/15/2002. Vol. 127, Issue 11.
For the cost of a latte a week, your library brings you the world
In a perfect world, everyone would have a library card, and the library would serve as both a real place worth spending time at and a virtual information center available 24 hours a day. The library would be the top-of-the-list destination for information and pleasure seekers alike. Unfortunately, in the real world, the public library may rate closer to number 11 as the chosen place to seek information (that’s according to a 2001 survey at The truth is the library isn’t on the radar screen of many people who think of themselves as information literate.
Despite all our real-time reference, web sites that rock, and exemplary programs, libraries are still missing the hook that will change our public’s perception of what we have to offer. It isn’t enough simply to tell potential patrons what is available at their library. What was the last Madison Avenue ad campaign you saw that just told what the product offered?
The hook is selling the value of the library in real bottom-line terms. 
The curse of history
Libraries are a beloved tradition in America, commanding respect, pride, and even a willingness to support the occasional bond issue. Yet, for an institution that has been around this long, the library has simply faded into the background for many in the general public. Librarians struggle to demonstrate that they are the information cognoscenti.
Most customer satisfaction surveys regarding library services indicate a high level of satisfaction with basic or traditional roles. The primary expectation is that libraries offer books for lending and provide programming for children, but they do not contribute to more sophisticated information needs. Adjusting such an entrenched reputation would not be easy in the best of circumstances. In this day of downloads from Kazaa, “Live Journal” communities and “blogs” with names like “Snoop Doggy Blog,” libraries have to fight for the attention of our users, and we are losing the battle. In trying to cast a new status for our institutions as information central we face the new and, for many librarians, uncomfortable position of being in competition. In this environment, we must tell our users—who are also our funders—what they get for a dollar spent by the library. 
Borrowing from the competition
Librarians do not promote library services well and often are reluctant to borrow from the private sector, although that may be the only thing that will guarantee a viable future. This observation isn’t new. In fact, more than 50 years ago Pelham Barr wrote, “There is general rejoicing if some lipstick, love, and lingerie magazine says a kind word about libraries” (Public Relations of Poor Relations,” LJ 6/15/46, p. 884ff). Things have not changed much. Too often, we wait for others to notice that we are doing a good job.
Try as we might, we have not come up with the ultimate marketing message. “@Your Library” is a terrific idea as far as it goes, but despite the best intentions and great public service announcements (PSAs) starring Susan Sarandon and Tim Robbins, three problems stand out. Just when we are trying to prove our relevance in the digital age, too often the implication of the campaign is that people must actually enter a building to use the rich array of resources libraries have to offer. We can market librarians as information-savvy and tout libraries as the place to find that recipe or research that car, but if the message is still about the library as the place, ultimately, we will lose out.
Second, as respected as Sarandon and Robbins are by baby boomers, their message may not hit Generation X or Y. These are the generations least impressed by the traditional array of services.  
And, most importantly, the campaign takes an essentially passive stance: We have something you might like, stop by if you have the time. Selling the library on its value, on the other hand, is about letting people know what their libraries already own. It is about presenting information as a commodity that librarians can deliver at discount rates. 
Databases vs. the web
Libraries should be valued and viewed as an essential community resource. People should react with delight when they’re presented with options for service and delivery. The first step is letting them know options exist. The next step is letting them know the comparative value of library products and services.
One area that is truly undermarketed is our electronic resources. Many users have no concept that they’re different from “the Web”. We know they are unique, content-rich, authoritative, and not free. Again, too many of our information literacy initiatives are passive. We ask people to sign up for a research class and then teach better search methods. Information literacy needs to include teaching happily oblivious people about the dangers of bad information and the costs of good information.
Like almost everything else in the library, databases are not a “free” service to the public, but they represent a great value compared with other available sources. The same marketing strategy can be applied to other areas of the library. 
Staff as marketers
So, what is the value of a library card? What is the value of a library? Access to unique resources? The help of trained professionals? While some of us want to tip the balance in favor of providing electronic resources for the serious user, it is still the human connection that makes the difference. As highly touted, purely electronic tools like Questia fade into history, we should remember to market the value of what is the largest percentage of most library budgets—the staff.
The staff in turn need to sell the value of the library. When Starbucks was a small, local coffee company, its staff knew coffee, and, more importantly, they knew their customers and understood that their service and our satisfaction were integrally linked. As customers we developed high expectations. While Starbucks has lost some of that personal touch, there are few among us who do not envy its brand, which literally helped change our tastes.
Like Starbucks, librarians can use the personal touch to build a brand and change user tastes. The reader who comes into the library every week to talk about what’s new and what’s good has high expectations about whatever the librarian is going to suggest. It’s the service that our public receives that helps them perceive the value the library brings.  
The staff need to be smart and offer expert knowledge, but, in fact, it is the personal encounters that hold value, whether they are face to face or virtual. Each encounter is an opportunity to share our expertise, our resources, and ourselves in a way that allows our customers to savor the experience and go away wanting more.
The marketing of libraries is the responsibility of all of the staff. If we can do it with reader’s advisory, we can convince our users of the worth of electronic resources and our ability to help them make the best possible use of them. We will know we have succeeded when a customer asks what new databases has been added this week. 
Marketing your worth
While the idea of advertising library services isn’t new, we must exploit it more than ever. We need to talk about “having the world in your pocket” with a library card and stress that you don’t have to be inside a library to use it. I hope some library somewhere is doing radio spots featuring “inside the mind of a librarian” scenarios that target diverse user groups. Even better, how about a whole show devoted to information? If the Satellite Sisters can be syndicated, why can’t a group of creative and zany librarians who respond to reference questions as though they were car repair issues?
Whatever the creative avenues your team can come up with to spread the word about what the library has to offer, don’t forget that these services aren’t free. Simply put, thanks to librarians, the public has access to resources more easily, quickly, and cheaply than would otherwise be conceivable. We know that; now we must let our public in on the secret. 
By Rivah K. Sass
Rivah K. Sass is Reference & Information Services Coordinator, Multnomah County Library, Portland, OR.
Five things libraries can do to market their worth
  1. Have a real budget for advertising, like St. Louis Public Library. It budgets $120,000 a year for radio ads, billboards, and bus cards, targeting some of its low-use neighbourhoods to encourage people to use the library and understand its value. Somewhere travelling around St. Louis is a bus with a sign that reads, “Want to be healthy, wealthy and wise? Use your library!”
  2. Develop creative PSAs aimed at Generations X and Y that are designed to be broadcast during late-night television. “It’s the middle of the night and you’re working on a paper? Did you know that your library card will get you into the library’s databases all night long? They’re better than Google, and you can cite them, too!”
  3. Develop catchy placards for the inside and outside of buses that highlight the value of the staff at the library. Use some of the more unusual questions librarians have been known to answer next to pictures of local staff members: “Have you ever wondered can you poach a salmon in the dishwasher? Ask a librarian!” In the Information Age, it’s good to know there are true information professionals ready to assist with any question.
  4. Joe Jarnes of the University of Washington iSchool says, “Be where people are.” Janes was the inspiration for Multnomah County Library’s “Knowmobile,” a rolling reference cart that allows staff to answer reference questions, make library cards, and promote library services at everything from baseball games to farmer’s markets.
  5. Work with database vendors to develop strategies and promotional collateral to market electronic resources and get the word out. Product-specific marketing materials about electronic resources would be a huge benefit to users and give librarians a chance to highlight the specific cost of building their collections.