Monday, December 26, 2016

Library Websites and home pages

Why have Websites? 
  • Excellent way to market library’s success
    • Broadens clientele base, those who wouldn’t traditionally use the library 
  • Enables users to access library resources from places convenient to them 
  • To ensure a place on the Internet 
    • Beyond pamphlet information 
  • Guide people to resources outside the library 
  • Reach new audiences 
Major factors
  • Make sure you have a purpose for your site 
    • Why are you doing this?
    • Will guide to content
  • Present a consistent image
    • Do you have to fit in with parent organization?
  • How to get people to visit your site 
    • Do you want links on indexes? 
    • Load quickly
    • Attractive site
    • Easy to use 
  • How to keep people coming back or spending time on your site (be a sticky site) 
    • People stay
    • Include a option to create a default home page for users
    • Data and links should be useful 
Planning your Website
  • Why are you doing a website?
  • Who are the primary audience?
  • What are your limitations? 
    • Staff to keep site up-to-date
    • Equipment 
  • What do you want people to be able to do at your site?
The Home Page* 
  • What should be on the home page? 
  • Must present the essential tools users need to navigate your site and no more than that 
  • Each item on the top page must be defensible 
    • Give a solid rationale as why it is there
  • You may have choices like:
    • Search the library’s catalogue
      • Don’t name the catalogue 
    • o Do research on a topic 
    *Ensor, Pat. “What’s Wrong with Cool?” Library Journal Supplement Net Connect (April 15, 2000):11-13 
    • Use text boxes explaining options which appear only when mouse is hovered over the option 
      • Give instant access 
    • Err on the side of leaving something off the homepage as long as you provide a navigational tool, e.g. site map, search function or site index 
    Essential elements 
    • URL persistence 
      • Register and keep it 
    • URL simplicity
      • Be memorable
    • Contacting the library 
    • Don’t overlook the basics
    • What to definitely include:
      • Official name of the library 
      • Complete street and mailing address of the main library and all its branches 
      • Phone numbers
      • E-mail address for general inquiries 
      • Hours of service
      • Link to catalogue 
      • Description of facilities and collections 
        • Virtual tours 
      • Finding aids or gateways to electronic resources 
      • Directory of library staff
        • Name/e-mail address 
      • Site index 
      • Search box for finding information within the site 
    Breeding, Marshall. “Essential Element of a Library Web Site.” Computers in Libraries 24 (Feb 2004):40+ 
    Keeping your website sticky
    • What is sticky? 
      • Keeping your users at your site for lengthy periods of time (effective use however!) and making sure they come back frequently 
    Methods for becoming sticky**
    • An editorial viewpoint 
    • Up-to-date relevant content
      • What’s new 
    • Building relationships 
      • Ask for feedback
      • Provide forms
      • Follow through 
    • Content with depth 
    • Niche content
      • Age appropriate
    • Building community
    • Features, features, and more features 
      • E-mail
      • New books
    * Fichter, Darlene. “Making Your Library Web Site Sticky.” Online 24 (Jul/Aug 2000): 87. 
    Keeping the site current
    • "A web site is like a cat box, you have to keep changing it if you don’t want users going elsewhere”*
    • Check and weed links regularly (at least once a month). AVOID LINK ROT!
    • Do not build a site so large that it cannot be maintained 
    • Add new items of interest, keep listings current 
    ** Minkel, Walter. “Keeping Up Appearances.” School Library Journal 45 (December 1999): 27 
    Some dos and don’ts 
    Dos Dont's
    Write your documents clearly and precisely Overuse emphasis
    Organize text so readers can scan for important information  Clutter with pretty but unnecessary images
    Be careful with backgrounds and coloured text Split individual topics across pages
    Keep layout simple Link repeatedly on the same site to the same page
    Provide alternative for images Use terminology specific to any one browser
    Provide a link to your home page and your parent organization's home page Don't use the "here" syndrome with your links
    Use descriptive links
    Provide signature block or link contact information on bottom of each page

    Lemay, Laura. Teach Yourself Web Publishing with HTML 3.0 in a Week. Indianapolis, Ind: Publishing, 1996, p. 307
    Suggestions for school library sites* 
    • Include links to 
      • Sites recommended for current assignments 
      • Announcements of special events 
      • Information for parents about library resources and activities 
    *Minkel, Walter. “’Tis a Gift to be Simple: Designing a Library Web Site that Makes Sense.” School Library Journal 45 [sic] (June 2000): 29.

    Suggestions for public library children sites* 
    • Keep parents and other caregivers notified of calendar of programs and library events
    • Provide a list of kid friendly events in the community 
    • Link to appropriate game and craft sites 
    *Minkel, Walter. “’Tis a Gift to be Simple: Designing a Library Web Site that Makes Sense.” School Library Journal 45 [sic] (June 2000): 29. 

    Criteria for evaluating web site effectiveness*
    • Navigational characteristics o How easy is it to navigate? 
    • Practical characteristics 
    • Visual characteristics 
      • Does it look pleasing? 
    *D’Angelo, John and Sherry K. Little. “Successful Web Pages: What are They and Do They Exist.” Information Technology and Libraries 17 (June 1998): 71-81. 

    • Provide a link to the home page and/or beginning of a group of pages 
    • Provide a link to a help page 
    • Give the same name to each link to the same location 
    • Provide links to outside sources or remote sites which are related to your organization or purpose
    • Keep all links updated
    • Make sure menus are understandable to users no matter where they enter the site
    • Make sure layout consistent and user-friendly 
    • Use bullets and numbers for lists but not images
    •  Do not create items that look like buttons, but do not work like buttons 
    • Strike a balance between graphics and transmission speed 
    • Images
      • Use no more than three images per page 
      • Allow users to choose between viewing or bypassing graphics 
      • Use images that are 600x400 pixels or smaller 
      • Banner images 500x100 pixels or smaller 
      • Make image files smaller than 25k, if possible less than 15k 
    • Background 
      • Make background files smaller than 5k
      • Avoid text that clashes with background pattern
      • Avoid Text that blends with background pattern
      • Use only light gray or white for backgrounds, not black
      • Use a patterned background for limited special effect 
    • Colour
      • Do not use more than 50 colours per image
      • Do not use more than four colours per screen
      • Indicate actions with warm colours 
      • Indicate emphasis with bright colours 
    • Content 
      • Design the web site for content, not appearance
      • Make the top 6 inches of the home page interesting and enticing
      • Provide text at the top of the page so users will have something to look at while graphics load
      • Put important material at top of page o Include a what’s new area
      • Provide a search capability for your page or site o Include descriptive data on the organization 
    • Home page should fit single screen
    • Keep the web page simple and organized 
    • Break up content with topic and subtopic headings or horizontal lines 
    • Make lines descriptive 
    • Include horizontal line at bottom of page
    • Provide navigational options at the top of the page (and bottom, if possible) 
    • Use boldface and italics sparingly, never type text in all caps 
    • Avoid using multiple fonts 
    • Use white space effectively

Monday, December 19, 2016

Special events and programming

  • Special events are held once
  • Programmes are ongoing over a period of time
    • For more than one day, e.g. summer reading programs between July 1 and August 31
Why have special events and programming?
  • Promote library 
  • Raise profile 
  • Create positive public relations with community 
  • Create a potential interest for media coverage of library 
  • Photo opportunities 
  • Video-taping opportunities for future broadcast 
  • Types
    • Informational 
    • Cultural
    • Recreational 
  • Purpose 
    • Motivate people to learn 
    • Attract new clientele 
      • People who didn’t think of going to the library for information or day-to-day activities 
  • For different types of libraries
    • Academic 
      •  Instruction—linked to a particular course
      • Orientation 
    • Special 
Special events 
  • Targeted to loyal clientele, new client groups, or both 
    • E.g. ground-breaking ceremony, anniversary 
  • Much planning is required 
    • Committee 
Open house 
  • Publicity
    • Email
    • Advertisements 
  • Logistics 
    • RSVPs?
    • If tour, more than one person needs to be present
    • Refreshments
      • When
      • Where 
  • Evaluation 
    • Guestbook 
    • Did new clientele join? 
  • Follow-up 
    • Send thanks 
    • Report on what occurred

Monday, December 12, 2016

Marketing concepts

What is marketing?
  • Marketing 
    • Managing demand 
    • Promoting product, service, use 
  • Public relations 
    • Maintaining relationship with clients
    • Managing library image with reasonable explanation turned into positive 
  • Advocacy 
    • Ambassador 
    • Bringing necessary service 
    • Managing support 
    • Cultivating movers and shakers to fight 
    • Encourage passionate support 
Library life cycle
  • What libraries can do when they reach the mature or decline stage 
    • Attempt to be the market leader 
      • Offered Internet, many thought this would be the death of libraries, but they can afford to offer it for free 
    • Find a niche of customers
      • What value can be added to users’ needs? 
    • Move into next cycle of communication 
      • Moved into Internet, databases to offer supports for users 
    • Divest 
      • What makes the library unique from others?
      • Add services 
      • Remove services 
How do we market? 
  • Key marketing concepts 
    • Market segmentation 
      • Public libraries segment by age – children, teens, adults, etc. 
      • Identifying actual and potential markets 
        • Who do, and who could, use the library? 
      • Determining proportion of individuals who will never be interested in your services 
        • Requires careful analysis 
      • Answers questions such as: 
        • Who are your clients? 
        • To what extent are they similar or different to their needs and demands?
        • Who are the most/least intensive users?
      • How might each type of library segment its market? 
      • Who are its primary clientele? 
        • Academic 
          • Faculty 
          • Graduates
          • Undergraduates
          • Professionals
        • Public
          • Age 
        • School
          • Teacher
          • Student 
        • Special
          • Department 
    • Market positioning 
      • Prioritizing groups of clients 
      • Who are primary client groups?
      • How much resources should be used in serving each group?
        • Allocate 
        • Outreach
        • Offer
        • Staff devoted to specific groups to provide resources 
    • Consumer analysis 
      • How do we find out who our nonusers are?
        • Don’t ignore users 
        • Don’t try to convert users
        • Find out who isn’t using the library
      • How do we analyze nonusers?
      • How can we determine the ongoing needs of users? 
        • Surveys 
          • Focus groups 
          • Interviews
          • Timed appropriately
          • Short
          • Keep track of questions and what can and cannot be answered
          • Must be easy to answer 
          • Clearly stated questions
          • Leave room for general comments 
            • Interesting feedback
              • Positive
              • Negative 
          • Suggestion boxes
          • Bulletin boards 
    • Marketing program 
      • The 4P’s
        • Product 
          • What are you offering?
          • Make a complete description of the product(s)/service(s) being offered 
            • Think about it from the user’s point of view: What’s in it for them?
            • What is the ultimate goal?
            • What does the user want?
          • What are the products attributes and benefits to the consumer? 
          • Product/service chart
          • Product/
            Features Benefits
            Self-service circulation Easy to follow screen instructions Speed in check-out materials
            Children's summer reading program Prizes
            Children find reading is fun
          • Six elements of quality of product/service
            • Performance 
              • Should be able to meet deadlines and turnarounds 
            • Features
              • What could be a value added? E.g. Story time, children participate 
            • Reliability 
              • Meet deadlines, be consistent 
            • Durability
              • Stands test of time, repetitiveness 
            • Esthetics 
              • Packaging 
              • Does it look professional? 
              • Means a lot
            • Perceived quality
              • Others recommend
              • It’s worthwhile
              • Time well spent 
        • Price 
          • Will it be free?
          • Will there be a cost? 
          • Link to the service and see the value.
          • How is service priced? 
            • Once free, printing is more often charged in both public and academic libraries. Special libraries account for all charges.
          • What are the costs involved to provide the service? o Should service be “fee” or “free” 
          • Levels of pricing 
            • Premium pricing
              • Charged at highest level for in-depth personal service 
            • Competitive pricing 
              • Photocopying, videorecording costs – can the library be cheaper?
              • Protect material if expensive 
              • People will rip or steal books 
            • Market penetration (discount pricing) 
              • Very aggressive 
              • Make place the first place to go
              • Libraries offer a lot for free 
        • Promotion 
          • How do you get the word out? 
            • How do you ensure that there’s good demand?
          • Getting the message out 
            • Personal selling 
            • Advertising 
            • Public service announcements
            • News releases 
            • On-site promotion
            • Direct mail 
        • Place
          • Be convenient
          • Where will service be offered? 
            • On location 
              • All branches? 
            • Over the Internet 
              • Virtual reference 
              • Chat
            • Various other sites 
              • Off site, not at library 
        • Politics
        • Public policy
      • Marketing audit
        • How successful was the program? 
          • Open house
          • Guestbook
          • Ask how they found out about the library? 
          • Use a decent evaluation form 
            • Check boxes
            • Additional comments
        • Different measures of success
        • Return on investment
        • Cost-effectiveness
        • Cost-benefit 
        • Popularity of program 
Marketing plan 
  • Determine what to promote (product) 
  • Define targeted audience 
    • Objectives
    • Target group(s) 
  • Choose type of outreach (strategy and promotion) 
    • Strategy and tactics 
      • Who
      • What
      • When 
      • Where 
      • How 
    • Communication tools 
  • Evaluate the program
    • Evaluation

Monday, December 5, 2016

Science fairs

McCann, Wendy Sherman. A Science Fair Companion. ERIC Digest. May 1999. 

This digest comments on various aspects of school science fairs. General expectations for science fair projects and participants are discussed, and tips for choosing a topic and completing a project are given. Organizational strategies for teachers charged with conducting science fairs are presented. Guidelines for parents in helping children with science fair projects are considered. 

For fulltext search ERIC under ERIC #ED432455

Fulltext articles on EBSCOhost 
Joseph, Linda C. “Science Fair Fundamentals.” Multimedia & Internet@Schools; Nov/Dec 2004, Vol. 11 Issue 6, p18 3p. Academic Search Premier 
Presents information on several Web sites that offer resources, tips, and experiments for science fair programs.

Marshall, Carol. “Science Fair Projects.” School Library Journal Winter 2002; Net Connect, Vol. 48, issue 2, p35, 2p. Academic Search Premier. 
Discusses the factors librarians may consider in helping grade school students find Internet resources about science projects. Problem and solution on topic selection; Description of Web sites; Information on various Web sites for grades four to eight and grades nine to 12. 

O’Connell, Beth; McElmeel, Sharron L. “Science Fair Sites.” Library Talk, Jan/Feb 2001, Vol. 14, Issue 1. Academic Search Premier. 
Presents information on several Web sites on science as of January and February 2001. 

Young, Terrence E. “No Pain, No Gain…The Science Teacher and You WORKING TOGETHER.” Library Media Connection. Jan 2003, Vol. 23, Issue 4, p14, 7p, 7c. Academic Search Premier. 
Focuses on the role of the school library media specialist in helping students learn quickly about science and technology. Entries below update and correct URLs for sites listed in above articles. 

CyberBee: Science Fair 

Cyber Fair: The Virtual Science Fair 

Kathy Schrock’s Guide to Educators

Stryjewski, Elizabeth. Kennedy Space Center. Science Project Guidelines. 

The Kids’ Guide to Science Projects 

Successful Science Fair Projects [Neuroscience for Kids – Science Project] 

The Science Club: Kids’ Science Projects

Monday, November 28, 2016

Standards Council of Canada – Standards

Standards Council of Canada – Standards.

Monday, November 21, 2016

About standards 
What is a standard? 
A standard is a document that has been prepared, approved, and published by a recognized standards organization, and contains rules, requirements, or procedures, for an orderly approach to a specific activity. Standards may include product design requirements, test methods, classifications, recommended practices, and other considerations. 
Many standards define safety requirements intended to reduce the risk of personal injury due to electrical shock or fire. Some standards set levels of performance for products. Some address social concerns, such as how our environment is managed or how information is used. 
Who sets the standards? 
Standards are established by a number of nationally and internationally recognized organizations. Many of these organizations, such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), and American Welding Society (AWS), for example, are associated with a specific industry or area of expertise. Some organizations, such as the Canadian Standards Association, develop regional and national standards in a wide range of subject areas. 
Standards organizations work with interested parties—including industry representatives, consumers, and regulatory bodies—to define the requirements that become the published standard. 
Are standards law? 
Some standards are voluntary; others become mandatory in certain jurisdictions. 
Standards organizations are not government bodies and so they do not have the power to make a standard mandatory. A standard only becomes law if a federal, state, regional, provincial or municipal government references it in legislation. 
Even if a standard is not mandatory, many organizations choose to comply in order to demonstrate their commitment to quality, performance or safety

Monday, November 14, 2016

Patent FAQs

Oyen Wiggs Green & Mutala. Patent FAQs

Monday, November 7, 2016

Monday, October 24, 2016

Patent training sites

Conducting a Patentability Search

Patent Searching Tutorial and Guide 

Leeds University Library Training Materials: Patent Searching for beginners 

Introduction to Searching DialogWeb for the Patent Researcher 

Access the European Patent Classification ClassPat offers a quick and efficient way to reach the classification symbols corresponding to your technical domains 

U.S. Patent Classification (USPC) Index

Monday, October 17, 2016

Patents and standards readings

Readings: patents 

About Patents and Patent Searching 

Canadian Patent Searching 
A brief guide to sources of information on Canadian patent searching compiled by Toronto Public Library. Last updated: July 23, 2003. 

Canadian Intellectual Property Office: A Guide to Patents 

Canadian Patents Database: Help: FAQ

Information on patents from a firm of Canadian lawyers specializing in intellectual property. 

United States Patent Searching

A brief guide to sources of information on United States patent searching compiled by Toronto Public Library. Last updated: July 22, 2003. Online sources for patents Canadian Intellectual Property Office

Patents Links compiled by the D. W. Craik Engineering Library at the U of M. 

E-Reference for: Patents/Trade-marks
Provides links to databases for Canadian and U.S. patents and trade-marks, worldwide patents and patents in specialized areas. Compiled by University of Waterloo Library. 

Internet Resources for Patents
Subject guide from University of Delaware Library. 

Readings: standards
*Canadian Standards Association. Frequently Asked Questions. Why Standards Matter 

National Standards Development

*Standards Council of Canada. Standards 

Standards Council of Canada. Frequently Asked Questions Online sources for standards 

Links compiled by the D. W. Craik Engineering Library at the U of M. 

E-Reference for Standards/Codes 
Provides links to central standards agencies, specialized societies that also write standards, and other collections of links. Compiled by the University of Waterloo. 

Standards & Specifications Written By Scholarly Societies 
Provides links to the homepages of scholarly and professional organizations and their standards and specifications, for when you already know which organization developed the standard being sought.

Research guide from Ryerson University Library. 

Standards and Codes 
Guide from Engineering and Computer Science Library, University of Toronto

Monday, October 10, 2016

Patents and standards

U.S. Patent 4,608,967 to Ralph R. Piro: Pat On the Back Apparatus 
What is a patent?
  • Patents are governmental grants that give inventors exclusive rights to their inventions for up to 20 years in Canada
  • Only “inventions” are patentable
  • In Canada, patents are a form of “intellectual” property Types of intellectual property
  • Patents: cover new inventions (process, machine, manufacture, composition of matter), or any new and useful improvement of an existing invention
  • Trade-marks: are words, symbols or designs (or a combination of these), used to distinguish the wares or services of one person or organization from those of others in the marketplace
  • Copyrights: provide protection for artistic, dramatic, musical or literary works (including computer programs), and three other subject-matter known as performance, sound recording, and communication signal
  • Industrial design: are the visual features of shape, configuration, pattern or ornament (or any combination of these features), applied to a finished article of manufacture
  • Integrated circuit topographies: refer to the three-dimensional configuration of the electronics circuits embodied in integrated circuit products or layout designs 
  • Plant breeders’ rights: apply to certain new plant varieties
Intellectual property

  • Are country specific 
    • A Canadian patent protects an invention only in Canada 
  • Must meet 3 basic criteria 
    • New
    • Useful
    • Ingenious 
  • In Canada given to 1st inventor to file an application 
Why search patents? 
  • 80% of patent information never disclosed or published elsewhere
  • Patents contain specific technical detail, research data and drawings
  • Patents and patent application often published before academic papers on subject
  • To assess relevant market trends 
  • To know competitor patent portfolio 
  • To avoid infringement situations 
What is a standard?
  • A document that establishes accepted practices, technical requirements or terminology for a particular product, service, system, or field
  • In a broad sense, a standard is anything that tells you how to do, test or identify something. Standards Council of Canada. Frequently Asked Questions. 
  • Standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that material, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose. ISO 
  • A document, established by consensus and approved by a recognised body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or definitions of characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context. The ISO/IEC Guide2:1996 
Who develops standards?
  • Committees of expert stakeholders which are usually organized and managed by an organization that specializes in the development of standards
  • Standards are formulated by Standards Developing Organizations (SDOs), usually a government agency, technical or trade association, professional society or association, international or regional organization or a private company 
  • In principle most standards are voluntary 
  • In practice, the demands of the marketplace mean many standards are effectively mandatory 
  • Government legislation may make some standards mandatory, e.g. electrical codes
  • The Standards Council of Canada, a crown corporation, coordinates the Canadian standards system and represents Canada on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 
Selected Canadian standards organizations 
  • Canadian Standards Association (CSA) 
  • Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB) 
  • Bureau de normalisation du Qu├ębec (BNQ) 
  • Underwriters’ Laboratories of Canada (ULC)
International standards
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 
    • A non-government organization established to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the sphere of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity 
    • Covers all technical fields except electrical and electronic engineering standards
    • ISO is not an acronym, it is a word derived from the Greek isos meaning equal
  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
    • Prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies

Monday, October 3, 2016

Mechanical engineering

Hurt, C.D. Informational Sources in Science and Technology, 3rd ed. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, 1998. p. 219
Mechanical engineering is somewhat like electrical engineering. Both cover large areas and have histories of research and data gathering on a large scale. The data gathering appears in the literature as an impressive array of handbook materials. Mechanical engineering has close contacts with physics and other fields. It is no longer restricted to large-scale machinery, if it ever was. It now deals with systems from massive to micro. While this may make the provision of information for mechanical engineers more difficult, there is reasonably good control of the literature in the field.

Monday, September 26, 2016

Materials science

Hurt, C.D. Informational Sources in Science and Technology, 3rd ed. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, 1998. p. 211
Materials science is a fascinating area. It deals with extant materials and materials no one has thought of yet. As such, it relies on some esoteric techniques and the literatures of a variety of different areas. Because materials science has a long history, the literature that produces it is reasonably well controlled. This is especially true relative to the rest of engineering and science.

Monday, September 19, 2016

Industrial engineering

Hurt, C.D. Informational Sources in Science and Technology, 3rd ed. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, 1998. p. 203
Industrial engineering is broad to the extreme. There is overlap in this section with chemical engineering, civil engineering, and virtually every other engineering area. It will not be a surprise to discover that the literature is not controlled very well.

The focus of industrial engineering is production. This focus drives this section to such broad limits. In seeking information in this area, be sure that all aspects of the requests are examined, not just the production aspect.

Monday, September 12, 2016

Electrical Engineering

Hurt, C.D. Informational Sources in Science and Technology, 3rd ed. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, 1998. p. 193.
Electrical engineering is immense in scope. Everything from microelectronics to the heaviest high-tension transmission lines lies within the discipline. The electrical engineer can be classified as anything from a lab-coated researcher to a field-oriented technician. 
Electrical engineering is a field with a great deal of research movement and a long history of data gathering, both of which are important components in the professional duties of the engineer. The information must be both specific and current. 
The literature of electrical engineering is well controlled. There are excellent abstracts and indexes available. The one area that is not well covered is gray literature. This is not a problem specific to electrical engineering, however.

Monday, September 5, 2016


Malinowsky, H. R. Reference Sources in Science, Engineering, Medicine and Agriculture. Phoenix, Ariz. ; Oryx Press, 1994. pp. 118-119.
Engineering is the application of scientific or physical knowledge to the development of a product. Technology refers to the tools that are used to develop these products. Engineering is an old profession dating to the times before Christ, but it has become a highly technical field relying on “cutting edge technology.” The results of engineering surround our existence, but to achieve these results engineers consume an enormous amount of research and development time. Today’s engineering researchers have to have a strong background in the sciences. 
Specialization is the basis of all engineering. These specialized subfields include:
  • Agricultural Engineering—an expanding field that is concerned with developing better ways to produce food and fibers. It includes machinery, plant engineering, genetic engineering, and soil engineering and works closely with areas of science such as chemistry, medicine, nutrition, botany, zoology, and environmental science.
  • Chemical Engineering—a discipline that studies how basic raw materials, such as ores, salts, sulfur, limestone, coal, natural gas, petroleum, air, and water are converted into a variety of products through various chemical processes. These products include aluminium, magnesium, and titanium metals; fuels; solvents; synthetic fertilizers; resins; plastics; antibiotics; paper; and petrochemicals.
  • Civil Engineering—a field that is basically concerned with the planning, design, construction, and management of any work project or facility, including buildings, structures, transportation facilities, water resource projects, dams, bridges, power generation plants, roads, harbors, river management, canals, wastewater facilities, sanitation facilities, soil mechanics, and foundations. Specialized areas within civil engineering include building engineering, structural engineering, highway engineering, transportation engineering, bridge engineering, tunnel engineering, coastal engineering, harbor and river engineering, dam engineering, hydraulics engineering, sanitary engineering, engineering geology, and soils engineering.
  • Electrical Engineering—an area that is concerned with the development of electrical power through any number of processes, including generators, wind, solar, water, and nuclear means. It is closely related to electronics, which is the control and use of electricity.
  • Engineering Design—an area that covers the initial creation of systems, devices, and processes. It is actually a part of all areas of engineering, with each engineer practicing engineering design.
  • Environmental Engineering—a fast expanding field concerned with all aspects of the environment and how to protect it. It includes such concerns as pollution, pesticide control, cleaner air, waste, ecology, and nuclear safety. These engineers work closely with engineers in all areas to ensure the best environmental conditions possible.
  • Industrial Engineering—the branch of engineering that uses mathematics, physics, and chemistry to design, improve, and install integrated systems that involve people, materials, equipment, and energy. In other words, it is the branch of engineering that seeks to improve efficiency. It is concerned with machines, robotics, materials, energy, and management.
  • Mechanical Engineering—this field of engineering is the application of physics in the development of any useful product. There is a little bit of mechanical engineering in all fields of engineering, including engineering graphics, robotics, engineering instruments, mechanics, strains and stresses, strength of materials, and testing.
  • Mining Engineering—the area that is concerned with all aspects of mining for minerals and hard fuels, such as coals. Liquid fuels are part of Petroleum Engineering.
  • Nuclear Engineering—the broad area of engineering that is concerned with all aspects of producing energy through the use of nuclear power.
  • Petroleum Engineering—the study of producing oil and gas from the well to the consumer. 
This chapter has taken all of these disciplines and grouped them into the following subcategories:
  • General Engineering/Technology
  • Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
  • Civil Engineering, Building, and Construction
  • Electrical and Electronics Engineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Industry and Manufacturing
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Transportation 
The major indexing service for engineering research is the Engineering Index. The engineering field is the major developer of handbooks. The first handbooks were intended to be a one-volume reference work that could be carried around in an engineer’s pocket. Today, however, many of these handbooks are larger and more comprehensive.

Monday, August 29, 2016

Engineering readings and resources

Engineering. In The Canadian Encyclopedia.

*Hurt, C.D. Information Sources in Science and Technology, 3rd ed. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, 1998. pp. 171-12. 

*Malinowsky, H.R. Reference Sources in Science, Engineering, Medicine, and Agriculture. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press, 1994. pp. 118-119. 

Online resources and guides BUBL LINK: Engineering Links 

Canada’s SchoolNet Learning Resources: Engineering 

Canadian Science and Engineering Hall of Fame

Cornell Theory Center Math and Science Gateway: Engineering

EEVL: The Internet Guide to Engineering, Mathematics & Computing

Engineering Resources by Subject

Engineering Societies in Canada 

A list of some of the societies related to engineering in Canada. 

Professional Societies of Engineers and Engineering Technologists in Canada
This list also includes some advocacy, trade and non-scholarly organizations. 

Engineering K12 Center 
From the American Society for Engineering Education. Whether you are creative and imaginative or you excel in math and science, the field of engineering may be for you. Check this site to learn more about engineering, famous engineers, engineering colleges and more. You can take a self-assessment test or just get some help with homework. 

Greatest Engineering Achievements of the Twentieth Century 
List of the top 20 achievements. The goal of the Greatest Achievements project is to celebrate a remarkable century of technological achievement. Initiated by the National Academy of Engineering, this project is a collaboration with the American Association of Engineering Societies, National Engineers Week, and 27 other professional engineering societies. 

Internet Public Library: Engineering 

Selected Internet Resources – Engineering 
Compiled by Science Reference Services, Library of Congress. 

Technical Dictionary 
A searchable dictionary of technical terms and acronyms from Integrated Publishing.

Vision Engineer 
Vision Engineer, a UK company responsible for site. Aimed at helping students who wish to discover more about the profession. Targeted primarily at university and sixth form students, Vision Engineer contains a diverse database of engineering related articles. Topics covered by the website range from mechanical systems to environmental issues.

Indexes and abstracts
Applied Science and Technology Index 
From H. W. Wilson. Provides access to journal citations in areas such as aeronautics, atmospheric sciences, computer science, electronics, energy resources, engineering, food industry, geology, textile industry, and transportation. Indexes over 300 English language journals. Also available in fulltext and abstract versions. Suitable for undergraduates.

Ei Compendex 
The machine-readable version of Engineering Index. The most comprehensive interdisciplinary database of engineering literature. Provides bibliographic citations and abstracts to engineering and technical literature from over 2,600 journals, conference proceedings, conference papers, technical reports and monographs published worldwide. 

Information Bridge 
The Information Bridge provides an open source to full-text and bibliographic records of Department of Energy (DOE) research and development reports in physics, chemistry, materials, biology, environmental science, energy technologies, engineering, computer and information science, renewable energy, and other topics. The Information Bridge consists of full-text documents produced and made available by the Department of Energy National Laboratories and grantees from 1995 forward. 

NTIS (National Technical Information Service) is a multidisciplinary bibliographic database. The sources are publications, especially unrestricted reports on research, development, and engineering projects, sponsored by U.S. and non-U.S. governments. Citations with abstracts are in English. NTIS is the major database for technical report literature. 

NTIS Product Search 
This abbreviated version of the NTIS database can be searched for free by title or topic. Includes more than 600,000 NTIS products and publications issued since 1990.

Monday, August 22, 2016


Engineering: definition 
1a. The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems. b. The profession of or the work performed by an engineer. 
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Copyright © 2000. 
The application of scientific or physical knowledge to the development of a product. 
Malinowsky, H. R. Reference Sources in Science, Engineering, Medicine and Agriculture. Phoenix, Ariz. : Oryx Press, 1994. pp. 118. 

What is engineering? 
Engineering is the use of the principles of math and science, plus experience, common sense and judgement to develop practical solutions to everyday problems. Engineers strive to meet the challenges of society by applying the forces and materials of nature to provide quicker, better and less expensive solutions. 
(University of Manitoba Faculty of Engineering) 

Four traditional areas 
  • Chemical 
  • Civil 
  • Electrical
  • Mechanical 
Chemical engineering 
Chemical engineering involves the processing and treating of liquids and gases. For example, some chemical engineers are studying ways to desalinate seawater—stripping it of salt to make the water safe to drink. Many chemical engineers work with petroleum and plastics, although both of these are the subject of independent disciplines. The term “environmental engineering” also applies to certain areas of chemical engineering, such as pollution control. 

Civil engineering 
Civil engineers are involved with infrastructure and environmental projects. They plan, design, supervise construction, manage, and maintain facilities using computer-based analysis and design. Many of their projects are familiar to most people: bridges, dams, highways, water and wastewater treatment plants, airports, flood control systems, etc. Civil engineers increasingly use new technologies such as Geographical Information/Positioning Systems, advanced materials, remote sensing and monitoring in their projects. 

Electrical engineering 
Electrical engineers deal with everything related to electrical devices and systems, and the use of electricity. They work in many diverse areas, including power systems, computers, and communications. Electrical engineers work in the design and manufacture of electronics and electrical devices for a wide spectrum of applications. Many are also involved in consulting, the planning and operation of power systems and telecommunication networks, satellite communications, and biomedical engineering. 

Mechanical engineering 
Mechanical engineers use the principles of mechanics and energy to design machines and processes. Many mechanical engineers work in energy and environmental specialities such as building systems, engine design, oil refining, mining, and air quality control, and pollution control processes. Others are involved in the automotive, manufacturing, materials science and biomechanics areas. Mechanical engineers can specialize in the aerospace area, and work in the design and development of technology for aviation and space exploration. 

Selected additional fields 
  • Aerospace Engineering 
  • Agricultural Engineering
  • Architectural Engineering
  • Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering
  • Ceramic Engineering
  • Chemical Engineering 
  • Civil Engineering
  • Computer Engineering
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Fire Protection Engineering
  • Industrial Engineering
  • Manufacturing Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metallurgy and Minerals Engineering
  • Mineral and Mining Engineering
  • Nuclear Engineering
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Transportation 

Engineering Engineers versus scientists 
Engineers Scientists
Use and exploit nature Discover and explore nature
Seek to develop and make things Searching for theories and principles
Solve problem for practical operating results Seek a result for its own ends
Invent things and solve problems Create new unities of thoughts

Engineering societies 
  • 5 major Founder Societies in U.S. 
    • American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 
    • American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME)
    • American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) 
    • The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    • American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) 
  • Many additional societies including 
    • American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) 
    • American Society of Heating Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
    • Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 
Information seeking habits 
  • Engineering students seek information from books, lectures, internet before consulting their “colleagues” i.e. other students (Majid & Tan, 2002) 
  • Professional engineers rely primarily on face-to-face communication 
    • Most frequently mentioned communication technique (78%) informal discussion with project team members in cubicles, open spaces, over lunch in cafeteria (Hirsh, 2000)
  • 66% of engineer’s time spent on communications
    • 31% reading/listening 
    • 35% writing/presenting 
    • (Pinelli, T. E. Knowledge Diffusion in the U.S. Aerospace Industry, 1997)
  • Engineers sometimes use libraries 
    • Relatively infrequently for information for recent projects 
    • Between 28 and 64 times/year 
  • Librarians used frequently (Hertzum & Pejtersen, 2000)
  • Engineers need information to solve an immediate problem or make a decision (Pinelli, 2001) 
  • Engineers are often required to keep their findings within their organization for business and/or security reasons
    • Often reluctant or prohibited from seeking or sharing sensitive information with peers external to own organization 
Engineering information 
  • Engineers more likely to use handbooks, standards, specifications and technical reports
  • Questions usually of short answer type with answer found in handbooks
  • Engineers read fewer journal articles per year on average than scientists, but spend more time reading each article they deem relevant (Tenopir and King, 2003) 
  • Unlike scientists the goal of the engineer is to produce or design a product, process or system; not to publish and make original contributions to the literature. Engineers unlike scientists, work within time constraints; they are not interested in theory, source data, and guides to the literature nearly as much as they are in reliable answers to specific questions. (H.R. Brinberg. The Contributions of Information to Economic Growth and Development. 1980) 
Technical reports 
  • Prominent in field of engineering
    • Often required to obtain grant money 
  • Common publication format for practicing engineers or those in the for profit sector
  • NTIS (National Technical Information Services) from U.S. Department of Commerce